Josephine V. Yam

Carbon Finance

… applies to investments in greenhouse gas emission reduction projects and the creation of financial instruments that are tradeable on the carbon market.
This article will discuss three detrimental impacts on private industry resulting from the U.S. government’s shift to a command‐and‐control approach from a market-based approach in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as the U.S. inescapably enters a carbon-constrained world. Read more.
This article will discuss why a cap-and-trade scheme, rather than a carbon tax, is the preferred carbon price policy for Canada. This is because a cap-and-trade scheme provides significant benefits of environmental effectiveness, cost effectiveness, effective revenue generation, geographic flexibility and political acceptability to Canada’s overall clean energy strategy. Indeed, this scheme will provide Canada with the greatest amount of carbon emission reductions at the least economic cost (Petsonk, Dudek & Goffman, 1998). Read more.
This article will discuss why the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is integral to the European Union (EU)’s Emission Trading System (ETS), despite the criticisms hurled against it. The three major criticisms are that many CDM projects do not meet the “additionality” criteria, that the CDM provides a perverse incentive to developing countries considering climate policies that adopt limits on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and that the CDM does not produce real reductions in GHG emissions. After explaining how those criticisms are overcome, this paper will conclude that the CDM is integral to the EU ETS because it provides industrialized countries with greater flexibility to comply with their Kyoto obligations at the least economic cost while providing developing countries with the opportunity for sustainable development. Read more.
Josephine V. Yam
Josephine is CEO & Co-Founder of B3 Canada, a mission-driven organization in Canada dedicated to building breakthrough boards through innovative board matching services for businesses, professionals and nonprofits.

Josephine is a highly accomplished lawyer-social entrepreneur with significant years of professional legal, policy, leadership and entrepreneurial experiences in the private, public and nonprofit sectors in Canada and internationally. She has been admitted to practice law in New York (USA), Alberta (Canada), Ontario (Canada) and the Philippines. She has also been interviewed on international television such as CNN and CNBC and featured in the international news magazine Newsweek.

Josephine recently graduated from Stanford University's Executive Program for Non-Profit Leaders. She also completed her Master of Laws (LLM) degree at the University of Calgary, Faculty of Law. Complimenting her advanced education at Harvard Law School and the University of Toronto, Josephine currently serves as one of the Energy Futures Lab Fellows of The Natural Step Canada.

Before founding B3 Canada, Josephine was the Executive Director of the Environmental Law Centre of Alberta and Lead Advisor for Corporate Consulting at the Pembina Institute. As Board Member of Immigrant Services Calgary, a large registered charity, Josephine served as Corporate Secretary, member of the Executive Committee, Board Development & Nominating Committee, Audit & Finance Committee and CEO Evaluation Committee. In the public sector, Josephine served as Senior Legal Counsel with the Government of Alberta’s Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Energy. In the private sector, Josephine worked with the international law firm Baker & McKenzie in its Hong Kong, Manila and Toronto offices, the Asian Development Bank and Procter & Gamble.

With her significant legal and senior management experiences in the private, public and nonprofit sectors in Canada and internationally, Josephine deeply understands that cross-sector collaboration in social innovation is crucial to achieving positive change in the world. This is what drives her deep commitment to advance B3 Canada’s mission of strengthening the board leadership capacity of Canada’s nonprofit sector as a force for good in society.

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