Josephine V. Yam

Environment

The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme: Criteria Evaluations & Lessons Learned

CIRL EU ETS Lessons Learned
This article won First Prize at the 2014 Canadian Institute of Resources Law (CIRL) Student Natural Resources Law Writing Competition.

It evaluates the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) to determine whether it has effectively reduced greenhouse gas emissions from 2005 to 2012. Based on three evaluation criteria, the EU ETS fared well in political feasibility but not in environmental integrity and cost-effectiveness. This article provides several lessons learned for other jurisdictions to consider when they set up their emissions trading schemes. Despite the plethora of challenges that the EU ETS faced, its overall success can be affirmed in its role as a shining testament that international emissions trading actually works.
Josephine V. Yam
Josephine is CEO & Co-Founder of B3 Canada, a mission-driven organization in Canada dedicated to building breakthrough boards through innovative board matching services for businesses, professionals and nonprofits.

Josephine is a highly accomplished lawyer-social entrepreneur with significant years of professional legal, policy, leadership and entrepreneurial experiences in the private, public and nonprofit sectors in Canada and internationally. She has been admitted to practice law in New York (USA), Alberta (Canada), Ontario (Canada) and the Philippines. She has also been interviewed on international television such as CNN and CNBC and featured in the international news magazine Newsweek.

Josephine recently graduated from Stanford University's Executive Program for Non-Profit Leaders. She also completed her Master of Laws (LLM) degree at the University of Calgary, Faculty of Law. Complimenting her advanced education at Harvard Law School and the University of Toronto, Josephine currently serves as one of the Energy Futures Lab Fellows of The Natural Step Canada.

Before founding B3 Canada, Josephine was the Executive Director of the Environmental Law Centre of Alberta and Lead Advisor for Corporate Consulting at the Pembina Institute. As Board Member of Immigrant Services Calgary, a large registered charity, Josephine served as Corporate Secretary, member of the Executive Committee, Board Development & Nominating Committee, Audit & Finance Committee and CEO Evaluation Committee. In the public sector, Josephine served as Senior Legal Counsel with the Government of Alberta’s Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Energy. In the private sector, Josephine worked with the international law firm Baker & McKenzie in its Hong Kong, Manila and Toronto offices, the Asian Development Bank and Procter & Gamble.

With her significant legal and senior management experiences in the private, public and nonprofit sectors in Canada and internationally, Josephine deeply understands that cross-sector collaboration in social innovation is crucial to achieving positive change in the world. This is what drives her deep commitment to advance B3 Canada’s mission of strengthening the board leadership capacity of Canada’s nonprofit sector as a force for good in society.

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